AI in the Fight Against Malaria

Date Created: April 3, 2019
AI in the Fight Against Malaria

Bed nets, insecticides and repellents are all effective intervention strategies to control the spread of malaria, but with a continuously dwindling budget, how can public officials and policy makers know what to use, where and when, to be most effective?

Malaria is caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. While it’s endemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), nearly half of the world’s population is at risk. According to the World Health Organization in 2015, there were roughly 212 million malaria cases and an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths.

Malaria control measures have led to a 29% reduction in mortality rates since 2010, I’d personally like to see this statistic eradicated, the tools of machine learning (ML) and more recently artificial intelligence (AI) may provide some potential answers.

Today at the Innovative Applications for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-IAAI) conference located in New Orleans, I am privileged to present our recent work ‘Novel Exploration Techniques (NETs) for Malaria Policy Interventions.’ Conducted in collaboration between IBM Research – Africa and the University of Oxford, we have begun to use machine intelligence to augment the decision-making abilities of officials, and explore more effective malaria policy interventions.

Our work proposes the use of different AI algorithms or ‘agents’ to determine the most effective intervention strategies for specific locations. This was possible due to publicly available research and models (OpenMalaria). The OpenMalaria simulation model can be used by computational agents to explore “what if” scenarios and learn new, more effective policies for the control of the disease.

Our approach applies multiple AI agents to determine more effective malaria policies based on a combination of; distributing long-lasting insecticide-treated nets; and performing indoor residual spraying programs. We ran these computational experiments to simulate a region in Western Kenya over a five-year intervention period into the future.

Using a combination of advanced computer infrastructure and AI we can demonstrate that it’s possible to determine higher performing future intervention strategies for a particular region. This is important, because as with anything, people find it difficult to deal with vast strategy spaces and sometimes our decisions can be prejudiced from past experience, lack of time or influence. We’ve developed the AI agents as “expert advisors”, to help support policy makers, looking for more cost-effective intervention strategies.

The cost effectiveness of malaria intervention strategies is significant; given finite, distributed and uncertain investment in the elimination of malaria, AI may be able to level the playing field and coordinate how we can do the most good for the greatest number of people. For example, a 2017 study reported that insecticide-treated nets are consistently the most cost effective intervention across a range of transmission locations.

Yet, our results suggest that for simulated scenarios in Western Kenya, it may be more cost effective to perform indoor residual spraying programs for a small proportion of households, instead of continuing to scale the deployment of insecticide-treated nets.

We have treated the particular challenge of determining the most cost-effective malaria interventions as a stochastic multi-armed bandit problem. Since we assume any strategy is to be implemented five years into the future, this reduces the problem to identifying which single policy as a combination of interventions is most cost effective.

At the same time as exploring novel, high-performing policies, we wish to reduce uncertainty given the stochasticity in the results which support any decision made.

Therefore, “Bandit algorithms” which take into account uncertainty were a natural fit as well as giving comparison with other techniques including Genetic Algorithms and Policy-Gradients from Reinforcement Learning.

While we have only just started to scratch the surface of possibilities of how AI may be used to tackle such grand challenges, we’re continuing to research how we can achieve more nuanced decisions through training machines to understand the impacts of seasonality; explore more intervention options; target interventions to specific populations; deploy across locations; and account for dynamic changes in the environment as we observe new real-world data. This I believe would bring us closer to the objective of malaria eradication with AI!

Luckily though, we don’t believe we have to do this alone or in isolation. We have been working to bring this work and the tools we’ve developed to the cloud, leveraging even greater computing resources, and geographical independence. Hopefully all of this will inspire other researchers to engage with the problem too.

Novel Exploration Techniques (NETs) for Malaria Policy Interventions  Oliver BentSekou L. RemyStephen RobertsAisha Walcott-Bryant

Originally written by Oliver Bent, reposted with permission from :

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Bisphenol A, 214 4-Aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) levels in tobacco smoke, 306 metabolic activation, 307 steps to DNA adduction, 308 G Gadolinium chloride, effects on rot-gut toxicity, 270 Void junctions, function in teratogenesis, 202 Genome-wide sequencing (GWS), use in lump biology, 223 Gentamicin, 181 Glomerulus, situation in filtering blood, 177 Glucosuria, 180 Glucuronidation delimitation and enzymology, 70 crestfallen power in embryo, 195 Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), 142 Glutathione conversion to disulfide (GSSG), 73 responsibility in triglutathione chloroethylene bioactivation, 184 design and occupation, 73 Glutathione reductase (GR), 73 Glutathione-S-transferase associations with android diseases, 74 contribution to carcinogen detoxication, 232 clarity and enzymology, 73 embryonic and foetal deficiency, 195 genetic defects and susceptibility to 1,3-butadiene, 310 genetic unlikeness and isoform multiplicity, 74 apt to impersonation in troglitazone toxicity, 168 Glycidamide, role in vinyl chloride toxicity, 252 Wen retardation federation with chlorpyifos, 218 undying endpoint of prenatal toxicity, 191 in foetal booze syndrome, 281 dearth for meticulous notice in savage tests, 204 Gut microbiome task in problem drinker liver impairment, 270 position in melamine toxicity, 69 role in metabolism, 67 H Haematuria, 180 Hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) theory relevance to prenatal toxicity, 199 role in carcinogen exertion, 230 capacity in electrophile reactions, 99 Tenseness breakdown comeback activation away cell emphasis and electrophiles, 138 involvement in intoxicating hepatitis, 275 situation of HSF-1, 139 Index The using software is effort version [url=]order 20 mg forzest[/url]. 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Por su contenido de Tadafil, este producto actua como inhibidor temporal de la enzima Fosfodiesterasa 5, mejor conocida como PDE-5, la cual regula el flujo de sangre durante la ereccion del pene y a diferencia de la Viagra, el efecto de duracion del Cialis es mucho mayor. El requisito indispensable para su funcionamiento es la excitacion sexual, pues sin eso no funcionara el medicamento. En otras palabras, este medicamento fomenta la dilatacion de los vasos sanguineos del pene y favorece que la sangre circule cuando exista una estimulacion de tipo sexual y de esta manera permite la ereccion, considerando que una de las principales causas de la disfuncion erectil es el flujo insuficiente de sangre. Son muchas las opiniones respecto al Cialis y aunque estimula la ereccion al crear las condiciones adecuadas para ello, el farmaco de fin de semana, como tambien es llamado, no tiene efecto alguno en el cerebro. 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Su funcion principal radica en la impotencia sexual gracias a que fomenta el flujo de sangre hacia el pene permitiendo asi que exista una ereccion, pero tambien es utilizado para otro tipo de afecciones relacionadas a la hiperplasia benigna de la prostata que incluyen dificultad y dolor al orinar, y tambien en quienes padecen hipertension pulmonar y requieren una mejora en su capacidad de ejercitarse a fin de evitar mareos, falta de aire y cansancio excesivo. Cualquiera que sea la razon de su uso, solo un medico especialista sera el encargado de indicarte si necesitas Tadafil o no en tu medicacion. En el caso del Cialis generico, las principales ventajas son: Logra la ereccion Mantiene la ereccion a largo plazo durante el acto sexual Las erecciones son casi siempre 100% fuertes Recuperacion rapida despues de los orgasmos Trabaja mas rapido que la Viagra Por su larga duracion, la espontaneidad de la relacion sexual es mayor. 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Precio del Cialis generico en Espana con envio rapido Es habitual que las farmacias online cobren un porcentaje o tarifa extra por el envio a domicilio de medicamentos y en el caso del Cialis generico no es diferente. Basta con que coloques en el buscador de internet y conseguiras miles de opciones de farmacias en las que puedes adquirir el producto en Espana envio rapido, pero ten en cuenta que si lo requieres urgente quizas debas pagar un poco mas. Si no conoces la empresa o farmacia, puedes revisar algun foro en linea en donde conseguiras opiniones acerca del sitio en internet asi como del medicamento que requieres comprar. Asi que a la hora de escoger tambien debes estar muy atento porque podrias estar tratando con estafadores que te ofrecen precios excesivamente economicos y atractivos del Cialis generico y no con farmacias serias y responsables que te haran llegar el producto con calidad y efectividad. Una vez que tengas el producto en tus manos, si es la primera vez puedes iniciar a ingerirlo segun la presentacion que hayas obtenido. Los de 2,5mg y 5mg estan indicados en personas que lo hagan como consumo diario y no de manera recreacional o esporadicamente, al contrario de las dosis de Cialis generico de 10mg y 20mg que tienen accion mas fuerte para una reaccion instantanea. La dosis inicial recomendada es la de 10mg aproximadamente una hora antes del acto sexual, la cual puedes aumentar (a la dosis maxima de 20mg) o disminuir (a las dosis diarias de 2,5 o 5mg) segun la eficacia que esta cantidad tenga sobre tu cuerpo. Si vas a comprar Cialis generico online es necesario que sepas cual y como debes tomarla para que no vayas a tener ningun problema posterior, por el contrario que puedas disfrutar de tu actividad sexual de manera plena y satisfactoria, llegando a niveles de placer inimaginables. 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